Diversity and antimicrobial activity of Vietnamese sponge - associated bacteia

This study aimed to assess the diversity and antimicrobial activity of cultivable bacteria associated with Vietnamese sponges. In total, 460 bacterial isolates were obtained from 18 marine sponges. Of these, 58.3% belonged to Proteobacteria, 16.5% to Actinobacteria, 18.0% to Firmicutes, and 7.2% to Bacteroidetes. At the genus level, isolated strains belonged to 55 genera, of which several genera, such as Bacillus, Pseudovibrio, Ruegeria, Vibrio, and Streptomyces, were the most predominant.

Culture media influenced the cultivable bacterial composition, whereas, from different sponge species, similar cultivable bacteria were recovered. Interestingly, there was little overlap of bacterial composition associated with sponges when the taxa isolated were compared to cultivation-independent data. Subsequent antimicrobial assays showed that 90 isolated strains exhibited antimicrobial activity against at least one of seven indicator microorganisms.

From the culture broth of the isolated strain with the strongest activity (Bacillus sp. M1_CRV_171), four secondary metabolites were isolated and identified, including cyclo(L-Pro-L-Tyr) (1), macrolactin A (2), macrolactin H (3), and 15,17-epoxy-16-hydroxy macrolactin A (4). Of these, compounds 2-4 exhibited antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of reference microorganisms.

Composition of cultivable bacteria associated with sponges at the phylum level (at the class level for the phylum Proteobacteria) (A) and the genus level (B). Composition of bacteria with antimicrobial activity associated with sponges at the genus level (C)

Chemical structures of isolated compounds (1–4)

Source: Vietnam National Museum of Nature, VAST
Link to Vietnamese version

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